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辽宁师范大学 硕士学位论文 A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer's Cultural Linguistics——Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples 姓名:张焕新 申请学位级别:硕士 专业:英语语言文学 指导教师:@ 20100301

摘要
在中国,诗歌英译已有百年以上的历史,诗歌翻译研究者们主要从语言学途 径,文化途径和诗学途径三种途径对诗歌翻译进行了研究。本文立足帕尔莫文化 语言学理论,结合语言和文化因素,对中国诗歌翻译中的意象图式转换进行研究。 帕尔莫在其著作《文化语言学理论》(Toward a Theory of Cultural Linguistics) 中认真研究了语言人类学的波厄斯派语言学、人类语义学及言语人类学,结合认 知语言学的相关学说,提出了文化语言学(cultural linguistics)这一研究语言的新学 说,并为语言研究开辟了新的方向。根据帕尔莫得理论,意象包括人们从各种感 觉器官所获得的具体意象,还包含更抽象的并与具体意象相关的认知概念。意象 的理论是文化语言学的根本所在。文化语言学的研究内容就是通过对相关意象的 分析来研究人们使用和理解语言的方式。文化语言学理论还指出,语言符号的排 列以意象为基础,而文化则是决定意象的因素,这种语言符号排列的最终形式就 是语言。因此,文化语言学所阐释的核心就是语言、意象和文化之间的相关性。 本文以帕尔莫文化语言学理论为基础,以中国古典诗词的诸多英译为蓝本, 以许渊冲教授等多位译者的译文为研究对象,对中国诗词翻译的意象转换的原则 和策略在中国诗词中的应用进行了系统的研究。研究证实语义对等和意象审美功 能对等的原则对中国诗歌翻译的意象转换起到非常重要的作用,同时要充分考虑 译入语文化的接受程度,以实现传播中国文化的目的。 关键词:文化语言学,诗歌翻译,意象图式

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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

Abstract
In China, poetry translation already has hundreds of years’ history, during which translation researchers have advanced theories from three approaches----linguistic approach, cultural approach and poetic approach. On the basis of Palmer’s cultural linguistics, with the combination of language and culture, this dissertation focuses on image transference of poetry translation. Palmer, in his book of Toward a Theory of Cultural Linguistics, created a new theory---cultural linguistics which is a new way to study languages, by studying three traditional approaches (Boasian linguistics, Ethnosemantics, and the ethnography of speaking), and combining the cognitive linguistics. According to this theory, images refer to those we get from all our perceptual organs and the abstract cognitive concepts which are relative to images. The theory of imagery is the core of cultural linguistics. Cultural linguistics mainly studies the way people utilize and understand languages by analyzing the images. It also points out that the play of linguistic symbols is based on imagery which is essentially structured by culture and language is the ultimate form of the play of linguistics symbols. Thus the core of cultural linguistics consists of imagery, language, culture and their relations. Based on the theory of Palmer’s cultural linguistics, taking the English versions of some classical Chinese Poetry for examples, taking the translated versions of Professor Xu Yuanchong and other translators as objects of study, this dissertation studies systematically the principles and strategies of the image transference in poetry translation and their applications. The study shows that the principles of semantic equivalence and aesthetic equivalence play very significant role in image transference of poetry translation. What’s more, full consideration should be taken to the cultural acceptance of target language so as to spread Chinese cultures abroad successfully. Key words:cultural linguistics; poetry translation; image-schema

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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

Acknowledgements
I would like to present my appreciation to my supervisor, Professor , who read through this thesis meticulously and offered enlightening suggestions, incisive comments, and constructive criticism. Without his instructive suggestions, this paper would never reach its present form. I would like to express my gratitude to my fellow-teachers, especially those who kindly assisted me in one way or another in the collection of materials, and hearty thanks to those authors and writers whose books and articles had been referred to and whose words or ideas had been quoted. Last but not least, I am grateful to my family, who supported and encouraged me all the time.

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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

Chapter One Introduction
1.1. Background and Purpose of the Research 1.1.1. The Background of the Research
Xu Yuanchong (Xu Yuanchong, 1992: 1) holds that the translated versions from Chinese into English appeared from the 18th century. Some English translation researchers such as James Legge, Arthur Waley, etc. contributed a lot to the translation of Chinese poems. In China, the translation of Chinese poetry became flourishing when the scholars such as Xu Yuanchong, Weng Xianliang, Gong Jinghao, etc. began their English translations of Chinese poems. The formation of their theories is based on the three widely-accepted methods: linguistic method, poetic method and cultural method. Some researchers focus on the linguistic features in the original poetry; some researchers pay more attention to the poetic features and their translation. As they become aware of the influence of cultural gaps in communication, researchers and translators have chosen the cultural aspect in poetry translation as their researching subject. Poetry is the essence of language while imagery is the soul of poetry, which is accepted by more and more scholars and researchers. They find a new way to research Chinese poetry, in addition to the traditional research method, such as poetic feature, semantic aspect, figure of speech, etc. On basis of Palmer’s cultural linguistics, image transference becomes a new approach to research Chinese poetry.

1.1.2. The Purpose of the Research
Imagery --- poet’s thinking process materialized by means of semantic symbols ---plays a very important role in composition and appreciation of poetry. In this aspect, Chinese and Western poems have a lot in common. As the Chinese poetry translation becomes flourishing, the research on imagery transference has also become popular in the academic world. With awareness of its significance, the author takes this topic as study object, and means to make a tentative study on this field. As imagery is the core of poetry as well as an important aspect in poetic study, especially in Chinese poetic study, this dissertation will research the principles and strategies of image transference of poetry translation from the aspects of language and culture. The design of the whole dissertation is as followed. Palmer systematically studied language, imagery and culture as well as their relations in his theory of cultural linguistics. Based on it, this
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

dissertation tries to make a further study of imagery--image transference of poetry translation by analyzing the image transference in the English versions of some Chinese poetry. Hopefully, it will be helpful in the image study and the appreciation of the English versions of Chinese poetry to take into account the relationship between imagery and culture in poetry translation.

1.2. Structure of the Thesis
This thesis is composed of five parts. Chapter 1 is the introduction of this thesis which specifies the background and purpose of the research. Chapter 2 is the literature review, focusing on the theoretical basis relative to the present study and includes three parts. The first part reviews the theory of Palmer’s cultural linguistics, mentioning three traditional approaches of anthropological linguistics and cognitive linguistics which are the basis of Palmer’s theory. The second part introduces some important concepts, such as image, schema, image-schema, and scrip and scenario. The last part introduces the relationship among language, imagery and culture by taking some examples. Chapter 3 analyzes the principles and strategies for image transference of poetry translation, dividing imagery into three categories---mental, semantic and aesthetic levels. Chapter 4 is the conclusion of the whole dissertation. The author sums up the main idea of this dissertation and points out its limitations as well as some relevant research topics for further study.

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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

Chapter TwoTheoretical Basis Relative to the Present Study
2.1 An Overview of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics 2.1.1 Three Traditional Approaches of Anthropological Linguistics
Linguistics includes many subfields and anthropological Linguistics is one of them. Anthropological Linguistics stresses on the social and cultural position of language, and its role of reinforcing and maintaining cultural practices and social structures. Anthropological linguistics consists of three traditional central approaches, namely, Boasian linguistics, ethnosemantics, and the ethnography of speaking. Palmer originated the synthesis as “cultural linguistics”. 2.1.1.1 Boasian Linguistics Boasian linguistics originated in America, develops rapidly and got flourishing in the first half of last century. It mainly stresses on the classificatory function of language. The creator of Boasian linguistics, Franz Boas is devoted to discovering the relationship among psychology, language and culture. He (1966:39) believes that there is close relation between linguistics and mental imagery. He point out that the expression of people’s thought is the conveyance of mental image, and no matter what language it is, it tends to choose this or that aspect of the mental image. He means that language can only reflect a part of thought; mental image can be conveyed and language is an efficient way to express the thought. Later, on the basis of Boas’ theory, Sapir proposes his own research opinion. Sapir (1949:97-507) claims that due to the varieties of grammatical categories among languages, which will lead to mutual incommensurability, various languages are supposed to convey conceptual thinking in various ways. However, he thinks the communication between people using different languages is still possible because of the physic unit of humanity. In this academic school, Whorf contributes a lot to this theory by researching Gestalt psychology, proposing the good connection among words like networks, and suggesting the existence of “crypto-types”. The term “schema or image-schema” originates from his study (Palmer, 1996: 12-13). Another scholar, John A. Lucy, develops Whorf’s theory by focusing on the influence of language on thoughts. He (1992: 156).suggests “cognitive dispositions”, “cognitive performance”, “cognitive entailments”, etc.
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

Based on the study of the above, the cognitive linguistics and future cultural linguistics are established.. 2.1.1.2 Ethnosemantics Ethnosemantics refers to the first generation of cognitive anthropology, which started during the 1960s and focuses on the study of the hypotheses that people capture cultural differences in relation to the process or system of organizing the specific cognitive domains into different groups that show the natural relationships. It is individual members of a given culture, not members of other cultures who share those cultural differences. That is, this theory is associated with the discovery of the differences of human being’s behaviors in organizing and using culture. The organizing principle is based on people’s behavior. With the development of ethnosemantics, it is very clear that it is the researchers’ strong interest in cognitive that keeps ethnosemantics developing. What is a pity is that the researchers of the following generations have never devoted themselves to the development of a theory of imagery in this field, and what’s more, they have never used a theory of imagery in it. What they focus on is lexical semantics. They illustrate systems of folk taxonomic categorization, give a close study on the slightest features of verbal meaning, and in terms of components analyze folk taxonomies or lexicons projecting over significant semantic domains. Concerning the theory of ethnosemantics, Palmer (1996: 22) takes the opinion that he has never found a study of imagery or image-schemas in it so he can not find any theoretical evidence in ethnosemantics to help him develop his theory of cultural linguistics. What he uses as the foundation of his theory is the theory of prototype and perceptual analysis, and the discovery of cultural script. From the above, we can see that ethnosemantics is not related to imagery or image-schemas, but it contributes a lot to the study of linguistics. 2.1.1.3 Ethnography of Speaking The ethnography of speaking (ES) started in the 1960s and developed during the 1960s and 1970s. ES supposes that a speaker with purposes applies linguistic resources to social counterparts in the situations which are defined culturally and offers a needed aspect of social environment and a dynamic view. So Palmer (1996: 23) takes the view that compared to ethnosemantics, the ethnography of speaking helps to form an idea about the position and function of imagery which is defined culturally in language.

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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

Dell Hymes (1971: 340) makes the connection between language and culture explicit. According to Palmer (1996: 23), he emphasizes the importance of study on speech acts, discourse, and performance, all situated in social contexts. That is to say, language develops with the social development and it changes in behavior, content and style on the basis of social environment where human beings create. So language has close association with society where cultures are formed and exchanged. In his study, he never views “mental phenomena” as a central part of his theory. He considers speech to be a system of cultural behaviors, but he is never engaged in the research of culture and language as psychology or cognition. Another linguist, Muriel Saville-Troike (1989: 21) makes a definition of “communicative competence” as a strong cognitive orientation, and meanwhile, he offers an illustration of constituents of shared knowledge. According to Muriel Saville-Troike (Ibid: 24), the shared knowledge refers to the same or similar background and knowledge that speakers and listeners have in their mind in order that they can communicate appropriately. From this perspective, ES is concerned with many elements related to society and culture. In Palmer’s opinion (1996: 28), the ethnography of speaking is relative to sociocultural situations, intentions as well as cultural conceptions of discourse itself. He believes that ES would gain in coherence by explicitly incorporating the principles of cognitive linguistics and he tries to find conceptual links between them to apply to his cultural linguistics (Ibid: 22-28). From the above, we can see ES has close connection with social environment and culture. It is concerned with Palmer’s cultural linguistics. Palmer’s cultural linguistics covers the aspects of intention, sociocultural environment, and discourse which is

cultural-concerned. In conclusion, the traditional Boasian linguistics, ethnosemantics, and ES have something in common in the native’s point of view. We can realize the integration of the cultural linguistics for we can advance Whorf’s program, absorb the good points from different approaches and further study Palmer’s cultural linguistics.

2.1.2 Cognitive Linguistics
Cognitive linguistics existed from the 1960s to the 1990s and is based on the theory of Boasian linguistics. Gardner (1985: 38-39) as one of the early cognitive linguists thinks that symbols, schemas, images, ideas as well as other forms of mental
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

representation are the only forms which can depict human cognitive activity, and human cognitive activity can only be described in those forms. These lines focus more on the mental activities, regardless of the influence of environment on human being’s mental activity. But between the lines, we can easily see image, schemas symbols and etc. are involved in the cognitive linguists’ study. Lakoff and Johnson(1999) point out that cognitive linguistics belongs to the second generation of the cognitive sciences, because unlike the first generation of “classical” cognitive science, the notion of embodiment occupies a prominent position during that period. Some specific hypotheses on language meaning, imagination, metaphor and cognitive mappings originated from the embodiment thesis, which plays a central role in the study of cognitive linguistics. Besides, cognitive linguists view representations as a trait of cognitive linguistics. Human beings instinctively have the ability to imagine, to adapt to their environment and to create physically and mentally. During their activities, human beings create the representations of the world, which are not simple mirror reflections of the world, but their understanding about the world. Lakoff (1987: 68) produces the term “Idealized Cognitive Models”. It is a gestalt, a complex structured whole, which employs four structuring principles. The structuring principles consist of metaphoric mappings, image-schematic structure, propositional structure, and metonymic mappings. Cognitive linguistics assures that language has the function of embodying and helping to form image schema which is the representation of the world around our organism, but it is not all that can help deal with everything in cognition, such as the notions of cultures and world outlooks, because human beings are different in their cultures, emotions and experiences. In the study fields of modern psychology, linguistics, and anthropology, language, culture and cognition are prominent study targets. They are researched by the scholars in different aspects, so emphasis on the relationship between two of the three terms, such as cognition and language; culture and language; cognition and culture seems a tendency. Through years’ study, more scholars treat those three together systematically. In the book of Toward a Theory of Cultural Linguistics, Palmer describes the three ones comprehensively. He mainly researches the relationship between culture and language. Palmer (1996: 36) holds the opinion on his research that cultural linguistics and Boasians, ethnosemanticists and ethnographers of speaking have something in common.
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

Cultural linguistics is relative to most of the same fields of language and culture which Boasians, ethnosemanticists and ES are interested in, but the cultural linguistics presumes a new way for study on the phenomena the nature of which is cognitive. Palmer’s cultural linguistics draws heavily upon cognitive linguistics. It is similar with cognitive linguistics because cognitive linguistics is one of the theoretical bases. Palmer develops it and gives it more contents and meanings than cognitive linguistics. We can say Palmer’s cultural linguistics is fundamentally theories of mental imagery. Concerning Palmer’s theory, imagery is the core of Palmer’s cultural linguistics. The function of his theory is to help understand how the speakers output their speeches and how the listeners absorb them by means of imagery, which includes symbols, image-schemas, basic categories, complex categories, and social scenarios, and etc. Imagery, from the perspective of cultural linguistics, plays an essential role in the development of human language, and makes a great contribution to the linguistic research. In the following part, we will go over some important cognitive concepts and analyze their relationship with language and culture.

2.2 Imagery ---The Core of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics
Palmer (1996: 46) takes that the theories of cultural linguistics and cognitive linguistics are essentially ones relative to mental imagery. Imagery is the central theme of Palmer’s book Toward A Theory of Cultural Linguistics. To understand Palmer’s theory of cultural linguistics is based on the comprehension of the significant concepts of image, schema, image-schema, script and scenario which are cognitive concepts relative to imagery.

2.2.1 Concept of Image
Palmer (1996: 47) makes a definition of “image” as a mental activity which represents something (especially, something visible) by memory or imagination, and by the sense through peripheral sensory organs; image is also considered to be a mental picture or to be an impression; an idea or a conception. From the definition, we can see image is involved in mentality. It is a thinking process, a mental representation of something that we perceive by our peripheral organs. It is not correct to consider that words which are concerned with images appeal to visual images. In fact, any sense we get from our peripheral organs can form images, such as touching, sounding, tasting and smelling. For example, the famous figure Helen Keller
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

is blind and deaf. She knows nothing about the word at first. She has no knowledge of water, sun, grass and cow. But her teacher makes her feel water, sunshine, leaves of grass and trees and animals. She knows the world in the help of her own peripheral sensory organs. That is to say she has the images of all the existing objects and images of the abstract ones, but her images may be different from those who can see and listen because they have different understanding and various imagination. So in addition that our visual experiences can produce the mental pictures in our mind, some senses from other sensory organs, such as sound, taste, touch and so on, can also be represented by images. According to Palmer, imagery is involved in visual images and non-visual images, which is broadened by Langacker to sensory imagery, visual imagery, auditory imagery, etc.. Compared to image which only strands for the visual image or a certain image from a single peripheral organ, imagery belongs to a larger category and is more general. In this aspect, it is not difficult to understand images from all the sensory organs of human beings by using imagery. According to cultural linguistics, this research is mainly concerned with imagery, which includes not only visual images, but also sound images, taste images, touch images and so forth. The prototypic function of imagery is to represent the world we experience in our mind according to our own imagination and understanding, and thus facilitate our thinking process. Langacker considers image to be human beings’ ability to grasp a conceived situation by using alternate images as to thought or expression. Take the picture of the famous face/vase illusion as an example. There are two possible results for the content of the picture, either two faces or a vase. If we perceive the white parts of the picture, regardless of the black part, we’ll see two faces facing each other; if we perceive the black part, regardless of the white part, we’ll se a vase clearly. So what images appear in our mind results from how we perceive the picture. Another example is concerned with auditory images. When we are listening to two persons, one of whom is singing and the other of whom is telling a story, we can form different images in our mind, either the singing tune or the story. If we focus on the singing, regardless of the voice of telling a story, we’ll follow the song and beat of it; if we pay attention to the voice of telling the story, regardless of singing, we’ll grasp the story and form an image of it. So what we perceive in our mind depends on the way we look or listen.
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

Images represent “the world out there” as well as our own bodies and their organic (and mental) processes. Palmer (1996: 59) points out those perceptual images must always be incomplete or fragmentary because they can only provide partial representations of complex entities, which are always presented to the mind’s eye in particular orientations seen from particular points of view. In the above lines, perceptual images refer to the perceptual sensuous images which are reflected from our perceptual sensuous organs or other parts of our body. We can reproduce partially an image from the information we get from the perceptual sensuous organs. Palmer (1996: 47) explained this from two aspects. On one hand, we are born with the schemas in our body, which are called conceptual schemas. Those schemas guide our sense directly so our sensuous organs only notice a limited scale of sensory experience. Images based on such filtered experience cannot reflect the environment completely. On the other hand, to come into images, the immediate, peripheral perceptions of experiences are to undergo a complex expressing. So the images can reflect the things of the world only indirectly, and it can represent them immediately. One aspect of imagery which is necessary for researchers to explore further in this part is the relationship of imagery and emotion. Undoubtedly, for a long time, the endless debates on this point do not come to end. Palmer’s own opinion and explanations on this issue in the book are also quite confusing. He (1996: 46) mentioned “There is also the complex imagery that arises from the emotions----the affective imagery of feeling states.” By this sentence, I think he means that emotional image is also a specific category of imagery, which is aroused by emotions and reflects emotions. We need more research to make clear the relationship between them and find the rules and approaches so that it will be more helpful to the study of image transference of poetry translation.

2.2.2 Schema
Palmer (1996: 63) both cognitive linguists and cognitive anthropologists have placed great reliance on schema. There are different definitions given by some linguistics according to their own understanding. Albert S. Bregman (1990: 43) views schema as a mental representation of some regularity in our experience. It means that a schema is human beings’ thinking process which can reproduce what has happened to us regularly. Wallace Chafe (1990: 80-81) defined schemas as “ready made models” and “prepackaged expectations and ways of
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

interpreting,” and is mostly supplied by our cultures. “Ready made” and “prepackage” mean that something is prepared well beforehand. According to Wallace Chafe, a schema, as a model, has already existed in human beings’ bodies. We are born with the ability to expect and understand the world. Claudia Strauss (1992: 3) put schemas as “learned, internalized patterns of thought--feeling that mediate both the interpretation of ongoing experience and the reconstruction of memories.” He also views schema as a thinking process. It has two functions: one is understanding and transforming the experience; the other is redesigning and reorganizing what we have in our mind. George Lakoff (1988: 136) considered that culturally defined schemas are a product of human imaginative capacities…. In another word, in the aspect of culture, schemas are defined to be created by human beings’ ability of imagination. According to Ronald W. Casson (1983: 430), schemas refer to something abstract conceptually, serving as go-betweens for stimuli people receive through the sensuous organs and their responses. Besides, schemas are also considered to be the basis for human activities such as dealing with information like recognition and understanding of the world, classification and planning, solving problems as well as making decision. Casson emphasizes schemas as conceptual abstractions. To be simple, a schema acts as a mediator, which balances the relations between the stimulation given to the sensory organs and behaviour we conduct. A schema is used to deal with what a person gets from the world. For example, we need to respond to our sense, to construe the world, to classify, to do a plan, to know and remember, to solve problems and to make decision. All of them are conceptual abstractions. A schema is the basis for human beings to do them all. Leonard Talmy (1983: 225) defined it as a process that involved the systematic selection of certain aspects of a referent scene to represent the whole, while disregarding the remaining aspects. We can put the lines in this way: we can get cognition to the world from our experience, from which we are capable of remaining and forming the basic ones in our mind, regardless of the others. Lakoff (1987: 420) holds the opinion that the images produced in people’s mind are practical ones which can be described as specific and vivid pictures while schemas are not specific pictures but more abstract concept. Lakoff points out the difference between images and schemas. Images are tangible and materialized, while schemas are abstract and intangible, which exists in a certain way. Schemas are not mental pictures,
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

but schematic representation of what human beings interact with the whole world.

2.2.3 Image-Schema
For Mark Johnson (1987: 103), image-schemas are “structures of embodied understanding” that are neither rich images (mental pictures) nor abstract propositional network. Lakoff (1987: 420) spoke of image-schemas that structure images but “can not [themselves] be imaged concretely”; however, Naomi Quinn (1911), citing Lakoff in personal communication, reported that he intended for image-schemas to be imageable. Quinn (1991:70) held that schemas underlying the use of metaphor may be “non-imagic”. In the former study on image-schemas, Mark Johnson and Lakoff held the opinion that schemas are a kind of structure which can embody people’s understanding to the materialized world, but both of them don’t think that image-schemas can be imaged. Noami Quinn tried to prove that image-schemas can be imaged, but schemas, as the basis of utilizing metaphor, seem not to be imaged. Palmer (1996: 66) points out that vocabulary relate to schemas, so that in a particular instance of usage each word corresponds to a part of some schema or a perspective on a schema. A word must be defined relative to its schema. That is to say, to understand a word as its speaker intended or to use it appropriately, it is necessary to know the schema or schemas to which it belongs in a particular context of use. Words evoke systems of meaning, and often, as in metaphor, they evoke two or more systems at once. Whole vocabularies pertaining to the landscape, the body, kinship, and other topics all have their own underlying schemas. Palmer makes clear the function of schemas to vocabulary. Schemas are basis of using words. Vocabulary must be connected with schemas, which can not be denied. Johnson (1987: 13) argued that certain very fundamental image-schemas, such as that of the container and that of force, originate in the structure of bodily experiences received early in life. That is, they are pre-conceptual, kinesthetic, and embodied. These lines give us such understanding that some image-schemas are input to our body by experiencing our daily life. We have already had the fundamental concepts of the materials. There are other kinds of imagery that might lay claim to something like the importance of the image-schemas already mentioned, though they may lack the element of physical embodiment through repetitive experience. Perhaps animacy itself, or animate being, should also be regarded as a fundamental image-schema. Certainly the
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

animacy of persons and animals around them is something that all humans encounter in earliest infancy. Another candidate for the status of image-schema is the human face. Research is currently being conducted to determine whether the human face can be regarded as conceptually innate (Ellis 1986). Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found evidence that higher visual center in the brain are specialized for the recognition of faces and of living things in general (Farah, McMullen, and Meyer 1991: 191). They speculated that faces and living things may require more con-figurational or holistic encoding than non-living things. Whether or not one accepts the innateness of the human face as a cognitive schema, the face is such a pervasive part of our daily experience that it would seem a good candidate for the status of an image-schema. The use of the face, and other body-parts, in metaphorical expressions is widespread, perhaps universal, among the languages of the world.

2.2.4 Script and Scenario
Ungerer and Schmid (2001: 213) depict “scripts” as knowledge structures which are in particular designed for the sequences of events which are frequently recurring. From the above, it is obvious that script is a structure of a series of events. It is helpful for people to understand by means of explaining the fragment information or the information which is beyond comprehension. Script is generalized knowledge structure about the sequence of events in particular sociocultural contexts, for example, preparing a meeting, interviewing for a job, “or any other frame where a sequence of ideas is well defined” (Palmer 1996: 76). Roger Schank and Robert Abelson (1977: 41) describe script as a sequence of behaviours which are prearranged and standardized. Palmer (1996: 76) takes the idea that scenarios and scripts are similar, both of which, like schemas, are defined with the factor of culture. But what distinguishes script/scenario from schema is the feature of contingency relations between script/scenario and other schemas. That is to say, a script/scenario can just be described as a series of schemas which are related to each other and combined together in behavior. To be specific, the concepts of image, schema, image-schema and script/scenario as well are abstract and can only be described hypothetically since no scientific proof can be offered. In addition, there are no absolutely distinctive differences between them, which results in some confusion in comprehension and application.

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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

2.3 Relationship among Language, Imagery and Culture
Palmer’s theory of cultural linguistics is based on cognitive linguistics. Palmer is the very person to systematically treat imagery, language and culture together. In analyzing the relationship between the three, Palmer has a detailed study and studies them in a whole from the perspective of cognitive linguistics. In his view point, language, imagery and culture are dependable. Language is a carrier to connecting physical world with imagery through verbal symbols. Imagery is formed by culture and individual’s experience. Language can not only help us to convey imagery in our mind, but also stimulate us to form imagery in our mind. About the relationship of the three, Palmer (1996: 291) comes up with an innovative proposal: Linguistic meaning is subsumed within worldview. Linguistic meaning is encyclopedic in the sense that it involves the spreading activation of conceptual networks that are organized chains and hierarchies of cognitive models. Language both expresses and constitutes worldview but could only fully determine it in a culture that lacked other means of expression and communication. The image differences in translation of poetry are based on the cultural differences and all of them are reflected in languages. In turn, languages are able to make different images active in respective cultural background. Some examples are as following: 春夜洛城闻笛 李白 谁家玉笛暗飞声,散入春风满洛城。 此夜曲中闻折柳,何人不起故园情。 Hearing the Flute on a Spring Night in Luoyang Li Bai From whose house has come the song of jade flute unseen? It fills the town of Luoyang, spread by wind of spring. Tonight I hear the farewell song of Willow Green. To whom the tune will not nostalgic feeling bring? (Xu Yuanchong, 2007: 143) This poem is an example of a good combination of imagery, language and culture. In this poem, there are different images, such as jade flute (玉笛), wind of spring (春风) and willow (柳). Understanding the image of “willow” (柳) the key to translating the is
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

poem, so let’s summarize the imagery of “willow” from some other poems. For example, in the lines of “杨柳岸晓风残月” (柳永《雨霖铃》 “笛中闻折柳,春色未曾看” ), (李白 《塞下曲》 , “羌笛何须怨杨柳, ) 春风不度玉门关” (王之涣 《凉州词》, “昔 ) 我往矣,杨柳依依”( 《诗经.采薇》 the image of “willow” is not the image of a plant ), with twigs floating in the wind. The willow is, to some extend, personified to be a person who is gloomy due to his immediate departure with his friends. From the semantic perspective, the pinyin for the word of “willow” (柳) in Chinese is “liu” which is the same as Chinese word “留” (liu). The meaning of “留” is “to stay” or “to keep sb. staying” or “to reserve” because of missing someone or the sadness of departure. So the image of “willow” and the sense of “sentimentality” are connected together due to the similar pronunciation. Culturally, it is a custom for ancient Chinese people to snap willow twig to show their reluctance to part while saying good-bye to their friends. So we can easily understand that the deeper meaning of “willow” is “reluctance to part”. In literature, especially in poetry, the image of “柳” is doubled due to cultural factors. From this example, we can see that the effects schema makes on image include that of emotional factors on images. Another example is “narcissus”. Originally, the image of “narcissus” is a common plant with yellow or white flowers. What Chinese people know about “narcissus” is just the original image. However, in western countries, “narcissus” is usually used in some legends or fairy tales to depict the image of a charming young man, or even a young man who has the complex of self-love. From the example, we can see that culture plays a very significant role in producing images. It can actually structure images. As we all know, different nations have different cultures although the central parts of each culture are almost the same. In fact it is even impossible for people to have the same imagery of one objective image even though they come from the same cultural background. The reason is obvious. Every person has a unique thinking process and experiences differently. The uniqueness and difference result in different emotions which have close relationship with images. That is to say, the images produced in people’s mind can arouse a certain emotion. So image consists of two aspects: one is the form of image, namely, image can be produced in sounds, pictures or taste and so on; the other is what we feel or what emotions we have when we have images in our mind.

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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

Chapter Three: Principles and Strategies for Image Transference of Poetry Translation
As we all know, translation study is a comprehensive discipline, which involves many study fields in our world such as linguistics, culture, aesthetics, philosophy, history, psychology, etc. Up to now, scholars have had heated debates on the nature of translation. Some scholars believe that translation belongs to linguistic category; some view it as a psychological activity; and others believe it is a process of literary creation. In fact, we can adopt good opinions and practice from different researchers. Professor Xu Yuanchong is an experienced translator and an expert in translating theoretically and practically. Xu Yuanchong (1989) thinks that as regard with literary translation, we must take three levels into account, namely, the mental level, the semantic level and the aesthetic level. Among them, the mental level is the key to making translation from SL to TL possible; the semantic level is essential for all types of translation, whereas the aesthetic level plays a more prominent role in literary translation than non-literary translation, such as scientific writings. We can also apply professor Xu’s theory on translation levels to the image transference of poetry translation. Some reasons are as followed. First, poetry composition, appreciation and translation are thinking process, based on the ability of imagination and understanding of the imagery, so mental image is considered to be the basis for poetry translation. Second, semantic level is essential to poetry translation, and to image transference. It is the basis for realizing the meaning of poetry just as Nida & Taber (2004) holds that translation is translating meanings. Understanding the meaning of poetry doesn’t mean to understand the lines literally, but to correctly understand the meaning of image in it, for image is an indispensable part in poetry. Understanding the image can be realized by means of analyzing the words and enriching the background information. So semantic success is essential to conveyance of the meaning of imagery as well as to understanding and appreciation of a poem. Third, it is widely accepted that the aesthetic enjoyment got from a poem can be achieved through the appropriate application of imagery, which researchers and scholars view as the basic element for the aesthetic level of a poem. To appreciate a poem means to appreciate the images in it so to translate a poem means to transfer the images of SL text into TL text from which TL readers can obtain the similar understanding and aesthetic enjoyment. So it is very important to research the image transference at mental
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

level, semantic level and aesthetic level in order to explore the study of Chinese poetry.

3.1 The Image Transference at Mental Level
The manifestation of poets’ thought in their works is mental image. Poets express their emotions and thoughts by materializing their mental images in their poems. Linguistic symbols are adopted to represent the imagery and readers understand poets’ emotions and thoughts by forming the identical image through the linguistic symbols in their mind. Readers are usually led into an imaginary space produced by their imagination aroused from the image transference of translated versions. With the objective of making the TL readers understand SL poems and form similar images, a translator reads the poem first like a common reader. He experiences the whole process of understanding the poem and form images in his mind. But unlike the common readers, he must fulfill his duty, that is, he finishes the translation of SL text into TL text which also involves imagery in linguistic form. So a translator should correctly grasp the poet’s thought by analyzing the semantic symbols and stimulating his own imagination. On the basis of Palmer’s cultural linguistics and the above analysis, we can draw a conclusion that mental images are essential to the thinking process of poetry translation. In terms of the materialization of imagery in linguistic symbols, translators and researchers make efforts to subject the mental images which are intangible and unobservable into tangible and observable ones, although the imagery transferred into TL text may be different from the one in the poet’s mind. Thus this study focuses on the observable imagery of Chinese poetry with the purpose of finding the principles and strategies of image transference in poetry translation at both the semantic and aesthetic levels. Taking Jiang Kui’s Complaint of the Pavilion of Adieu for an example: 长亭怨慢 姜夔 日暮,望高城不见, 只见乱山无数。 韦郎去也,怎忘得玉环分付。 第一是早早归来,怕红萼无人为主。 算空有并刀,难剪离愁千缕。 Complaint of the Pavilion of Adieu At sunset I can’t see the city wall
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

But rugged hills which rise and fall. Though I’ve left you, can I forget what you said While putting on my finger your ring of jade: “O first of all, Come back as early as you can, for I’m afraid None will take care Of the peony red.” In vain of scissors sharp have I pair; Of parting grief how can I cut off thread on thread? ----Tr. by Xu Yuanchong (2007: 83) According to the above statement, the first job for a translator to do before translating is to comprehend the Ci like a common reader. While reading the Ci, a translator needs to find some cultural information about the Ci, which can help him to comprehend the poet’s emotion and the content of the Ci better. This Ci shows us the poetess’ gloomy emotion of reluctance to part with her beloved. Usually, poets express their emotions and thoughts by materializing their mental images in their poems. In this Ci, the poetess materializes her mental images as sunset, rugged hills, ring of jade, peony, and thread, which are used as linguistic symbols to represent the imagery. Hill in sunset looks rugged, which shows that the poetess has no interest in appreciating the natural scenery for the reason that her beloved just leaves her and promises to come back within 8 years. “Rugged” shows the poetess’ gloomy emotion. “Ring of jade” is the very object to show the relationship between two lovers, which can be understood by both Chinese culture and western culture. In this Ci, it stands for their love and promise given by her beloved. “Peony” is not a common kind of flower in this Ci, which has been culturally defined. In this Ci, peony stands for the poetess herself, which is also implied to refer to lovers. “Thread” is a metaphor, which refers to the poetess’ emotion of missing her beloved and reluctance to part with him. So the key to understanding a poet is to have the identical images which the poet has. To a translator, to reproduce the images similar to the original is a key to making the TL readers understand the poem.

3.2 The Image Transference at Semantic Level
Translation is a process of reproduction in target language. Translation should try
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

to realize the equivalence of meaning and style between SL text and TL text. If a translator attempts to make readers construe the images in his translated version and be aware of the artistic ideorealm, it is a precondition that readers must construe what are images. Thus the first principle for the image transference is semantic equivalence.

3.2.1 Semantic Equivalence Principle
According to Nida &Taber (2004: 12), translating should follow the principle that the reproduction in TL text should be the closest natural equivalent of the SL message both in its meaning and in its style. It means that translation is a process of reproduction in target language. Translation should try to realize the equivalence of meaning and style between SL text and TL text. Equivalence is applied as a special term to depict the essence and extent of the relationships that exist between SL and TL texts or smaller linguistic units. So if a translator attempts to make readers construe the images in his translated version and be aware of the artistic ideorealm, it is a precondition that readers must construe what are images. Thus in terms of principles of mage transference in poetry translation, the first one should be semantic equivalence. Semantic equivalence refers to the principle that the translated versions in target language should arouse TL readers to have similar or the same response which SL readers will naturally have when stimulated by the discourses (semantic level) in the original text. Basically, two meanings are involved in the meaning of imagery: one is referential meaning in which images represent the objects in physical world; the other is associative meaning which stands for what comes to the readers’ mind except the objective materials when they experience imagery in the reading process. So semantic equivalence in image transference of poetry translation is just realized in the equivalence in the referential meaning and associative meaning. In the following part, I will analyze the application of the concrete strategies that are applicable in translating imagery at the semantic level by taking some classical Chinese poetry. These strategies follow the above principle of semantic equivalence.

3.2.2 Strategies for the Semantic Equivalence of Image Transference
Three ways should be applied in transferring imagery of poetry at semantic level: literally translating the images, replacing the SL images with TL images and removing the images in TL text. 3.2.2.1 Literally Translating the Images The strategy of literally translating the images in SL text into TL text is usually
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

used in the situation that SL culture and TL culture share similar or the same images and the images can arouse the TL readers to have similar or the same imagination as that of the SL readers. That is to say, the original and translated texts share similar or the same referential meaning and associative meaning. On this occasion, we should translate the images literally to represent the original image in the TL text without any footnotes to the poems. Taking the following poem for an example: 登鹳雀楼 王之涣 白日依山尽, 黄河入海流。 欲穷千里目, 更上一层楼。 The white sun behind the mountain falls, The Yellow River into the seas flows. In order to take in a boundless view, Ascend another floor. ----Tr. by RenZhiji&Yuzheng (2006: 9) In this poem, some images are produced, such as “the white sun”, “mountain”, “the Yellow River” and “sea”, which are familiar to English-speaking readers. Each line can arouse readers including SL readers and TL readers to have similar images: the sun is setting; the Yellow River is flowing into the sea; the author is stepping up with the purpose of having a better view. TL readers can understand and accept the translated versions easily with their common sense. In the poem, the linguistic symbols which embody the poet’s mental images are familiar to the TL readers, so the images in this poem are transferred by translating literally. Another example is as following: 花鸭 杜甫 花鸭无泥滓,阶前每缓行。 羽毛知独立,黑白太分明。 不觉群心妒,休牵俗眼惊。

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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

稻梁沾汝在,作意莫先鸣。 The Coloured Duck Dufu The coloured duck So clean and shining Comes up to the front Of the steps; Other ducks seeing it Standing alone, as Different from them As black is from white; Not troubling What others think of it; Surely, Hardly wise to bring Such attention to itself; Better for it quietly To take its share of what There is, never Being heard first. -----Tr. Rewi Alley (2005: 228-229) In this poem, all words are easy to understand. It shows us a very vivid picture that a special duck (coloured; clean and shining) is “coming up to the front of the steps” and other ducks are jealous of it. Some semantic symbols are presented in this poem including visual images of colour, such as “colored”, “black” and “white”, and sounds images. While reading the poem, readers have a picture in mind and can easily achieve the images in the poem. Generally speaking, the translators should try to keep the artistic ideorealm of the poem by reproducing similar or the same images in TL text as those in original text as possible as they can, but in many poems, the images in the original text can not easily be reproduced in translated versions due to different cultures. That is to say, some images in the SL culture and TL culture have the same referential meaning but with the development of culture and social environment, they may have semantic changes and
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

have various associative meanings. If the images are translated literally, only the equivalence of referential meaning can be achieved, which will result in misunderstanding poems. Usually those images play a very significant role in construing the poem so they can not be omitted. One way to solve the problem is to add some footnotes to make the associative meaning more explicit, which will be helpful for the TL readers to construe the associative meaning of those symbolic images. For example: 板桥晓别 李商隐 回望高城落晓城,长亭窗户压微波。 水仙欲上鲤鱼去,一夜芙蓉红泪多。 Morning Farewell at Banqiao LiShangyin Tall city wall left behind,Where dips the Milky Way. Windows of Long Booth press down over gentle waves. Water fairy ready to leave on the back of the carp; Overnight, red tears of lotuses profusely rained. ------Tr. RenZhiji&Yuzheng (2006: 156) The translators add four items of footnotes. One is for the “Banqiao”: “Banqiao, short for Banqiao Dian, here refers to a place west of Bianzhou (today’s Kaifeng City in Henan Province)” (RenZhiji&Yuzheng, 2006: 156). The second is for “Tall city”: “refers to Bianzhou of the Tang Dynasty”. The third is for “Long booth”: “refers to rest booths spaced out along vehicle roadways at ten li intervals, a convenient place to hold farewell parties” (RenZhiji&Yuzheng, 2006: 156). The fourth one is for a story that is mentioned in the poem: “It is a fairy tale, in which a man named Qinggao of the Warring States moved around by magic on the back of a carp.” (RenZhiji&Yuzheng, 2006: 156). With these footnotes, the common English readers who are ignorant of Chinese culture can understand the poem better. Without the footnotes, TL readers will be puzzled with the names and quoted story which will definitely spoil the images of the poem and make readers miscomprehend it. So in some translated versions, footnotes are necessary to help TL readers to reproduce the similar images. Taking Li Bai’s Ode to QiuPu River for another example:

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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

秋浦歌 李白 白发三千丈,缘愁似个长? 不知明镜里,何处得秋霜。 White hair three thousand yards, For worries are seemingly as long? Who knows in the mirror bright, Whence the autumn frost 1 comes?
(1. “Frost” here is a metaphor for white hair.)

---Tr. by RenZhiji&Yuzheng, 2006: 39) In the last line, “秋霜” is translated into “frost” which will confuse the TL readers. They can not associate “frost” with “mirror” in the former line. Does it mean the mirror is covered with frost? In this case, the translators put a footnote to make it clear that “frost” means “white hair” for the similar feature of white color between “frost” and “white hair”. In translating this poem, the translators deal with the problem in a clever way. He not only preserves the original images, but also avoids making TL reader miscomprehend the poem. So keeping the original images with annotation is applicable. In addition to this method, we can apply some other approaches to transfer images. 3.2.2.2 Replacing the SL Images with TL Images If the images in the SL text cannot arouse TL readers to have similar or the same association or unfortunately cause misapprehension, they can be transferred into a various one in the TL text, that is, to replace the original image by using a TL image. The followings are some examples. In Chinese, “断肠” carries symbolic meaning, rather than the human organ which may make English readers feel disgusted and repulsed. It means extreme sadness or gloom. For example: 十一月中旬至扶风界见梅花 李商隐 匝路亭亭艳,非时袅袅香。 素娥惟与月,青女不饶霜。 赠远虚盈手,伤离适断肠。 为谁成早秀?不待作年芳。
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

Upon Reaching Fufeng Area in Mid-November and Seeing Plum Blossoms Wayside beauty graceful and smart, Wrong time for whiffs upon whiffs of this sweet art. White Lassie has praises only for the moon. Blue Girl shows no mercy to cut back on frost. Armfuls as gifts for distant friends, No comfort for partings that are heart-wrenching pains. For whom is this precocious show? And not wait to be the flower of the year new. (RenZhiji&Yuzheng, 2006: 152) 落花 李商隐 肠断未忍扫, 眼穿仍欲归。 XuYuanchong (2007: 71) translates “断肠” into “broken heart”. Falling Flowers I won’t sweep them with broken heart, But wish they would not fall apart. From the above examples, we have easily found out the advantage of replacement in translating imagery. RenZhiji&Yuzheng translate “断肠” into “heart-wrenching pains” rather than “intestine-wrenching pains”. Similarly, Xu renders “断肠” into “broken heart” rather than “broken intestine”. In Chinese culture, “断肠” and “心碎” have similar symbolic meaning, with the image of extreme sadness or gloom. However, in western culture, there is the same image in “broken heart” as in “心碎” rather than in “断肠”. So if TL readers read the “intestine-wrenching” or “broken intestine”, they will be confused totally. In this case, replacing them with “heart-wrenching” or “broken heart” is acceptable. Generally speaking, this explicit strategy is less common for translators with a high degree of cultural-awareness. Xu Yuanchong’s translation of Dufu’s “蜀相” as “Temple of the Premier of Shu” is also such a case in point. (Xu Yuanchong, 2007: 223). The position of “premier” is more understandable for western readers than “Chengxiang”.

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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

While in the lines “三顾频烦天下计, 两朝开济老臣心”, Rewi Alley translates “老臣” into “this statesman”, rather than “official in feudal times”. (Rewi Alley, 2005: 190-191). The replacement of the SL image may leave, inadvertently, an impression on the TL readers that in traditional Chinese poetry we also have the same images of “premier” and “statesman” as in the western culture. 3.2.2.3 Removing the Images in TL Text Besides the cases in the above two, there is a third one. Neither the referential meaning of the images nor the associative meaning of the images can be comprehended by the TL readers. The main reason is that the TL readers can not understand some of the Chinese cultures. In this case, it is a great difficulty to make TL readers achieve either referential equivalence or associative equivalence. For translators, the only way for them to do is to paraphrase the connotation of the image in SL text or to choose to remove the image from the translated version which sometimes will destroy the completion of the poetry and images in it. According to theory, translators should preserve the SL images as much as possible. But to the lines in some Chinese poems, translators can’t find the corresponding equivalents in English, because of the linguistics or cultural differences between Chinese and English. Thus, it is a useful way to defy intact preservation in translating. Besides annotation and replacement, there is still another method for the translators--removing the images in the TL text and paraphrasing the meaning of the lines or poem. In Chinese poetry, many names of people or places are used. Some of them are essential to the understanding and appreciation of the whole poem, but some are not. In the case that the names are of importance to the whole poem, the way of keeping the image with annotation will be employed in translation; if the names are not very important to the poem and they will put the TL readers into trouble in understanding the translated versions, the names should be removed, although it destroys the completion of the images in the poem. Let’s take the following poem for an example: 送魏万之京 李颀 朝闻游子唱离歌,昨夜微霜初渡河。 鸿雁不堪愁里听,云山况是客中过。 关城树色催寒近,御苑砧声向晚多。

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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

莫见长安行乐处,空令岁月易蹉跎。

Seeing Wei Wan off to the Capital LiQi At dawn I hear the roamer’s farewell song; Last night a thin frost crossed the river long, Are you not grieved to hear the wild geese cry? Can you bear clouds and mountains passing by? Yellow leaves hasten the cold to come near. Could washerwomen’s song reach their men’s ear? Don’t make merry in the capital town And waste the prime of your life up and down! ——Tr. By XuYuanchong (2007: 96) “关城” (guancheng) in the poem refers to ancient HanGuguan and TongGuan, two places which are on the way from LuoYan to the west. They are not loaded with any special cultural meaning but indicate the places which the friend of poet is passing by. In this poem, the poet mainly expresses his sorrow for his friend’s leaving by describing the awful weather (frost) and scenery (yellow leaves; passing clouds and mountain), so the two places are not important. XuYuanchong here has just omitted this image and focused on the scenery and his passion. His rendering can help target readers to appreciate the original artistic ideorealm better. If it is hard to find the counterpart in the target language for the source language, and the annotation will be abundant to explain, the method of paraphrasing will be helpful. WangYai’s Autumn Thoughts for My Wife (《秋思赠远二首》) is such case: 秋思赠远二首 王涯 当年只自守空帷,梦里关山觉别离。 不见乡书传雁足,唯看新月吐蛾眉。

Autumn Thoughts for My Wife WangYa
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

In bygone years alone in empty room did I stay To dream of the mountains of homeland far away. Seeing no wild geese bringing me your letter now, I only find the new moon like your arching brow. -----Tr. by XuYuanchong (2007: 192) “蛾眉” in ancient Chinese doesn’t refer to the moth’s brow but means that the shape of a woman’s brow is dainty and curved as moth’s antenna. In translating these words, it is really hard to find out the counterpart in English for “蛾眉”, and therefore it is paraphrased into “your arching brow”. Those three main approaches are usually adopted for transferring imagery in Chinese poetry at the semantic level. These approaches are achieved by previous translators from translating practice. During translation, distinguishing Cultural differences between China and western countries is a very important factor that the translator must take into account in the process of transferring imagery.

3.3 Transference of the Imagery at the Aesthetic Level 3.3.1 Aesthetic Equivalence Principle
As for the research of poetry translation, different principles have been produced due to the translating practice. Among them, the most influential principle in China is the theory of “3S” advocated by Xu Yuanchong, that is, “the beauty in Sense, Sound and Style”. Professor Xu and many other poetry translators put the beauty in sense in the first place. Imagery is the basic element for the beauty in sense. So the second principle for the image transference in Chinese poetry is to achieve aesthetic equivalence of poetry. Specifically speaking, the translated versions should have the same or similar aesthetic function to the TL readers as the SL text does to the SL readers, and make them enjoy the beauty in the poetry. Chinese ancient poets view imagery in Chinese poetry as the fusion of “意” (yi, emotion and thoughts) and “象”, (xiang, scene) through the representation of linguistic symbols. The concrete images on the surface level resort to the senses of the readers, especially their auditory and visual senses. This is one aspect of aesthetic experience. The beauty deriving from the emotion and thoughts of the original poem can arouse similar feelings from the readers, which is another aspect of aesthetic experience. Hence the aesthetic enjoyment that the imagery can give to the
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

readers resides in two aspects, namely, the sensuous level and the affective level. In translation,the translators should try their utmost to convey the two levels of beauty in an effort to make the TL readers have identical or similar aesthetic experience to the SL readers.

3.3.2 The Image Beauty at Sensuous Level and Its Transference
In order to achieve the effect of appealing to human senses,visual and auditory imagery in poetry are the most commonly used among the various categories. The aesthetic enjoyment that the readers can get at the sensuous level is mainly achieved by adopting those images appealing to human senses, especially the sense of sight and sound. We have mentioned some examples with the images appealing to human senses. But it is still a difficulty to convey them effectively to the TL text. So to be concerned with the choice of single images as well as good arrangement of those images is an appropriate way to achieve a certain effect in image transference of poetry translation. A well-written poem with the combination of images can achieve some special kinds of beauty similar to other art forms like sculpture, painting, film-making, which mainly resort to the visual and auditory senses of the audience and give them aesthetic enjoyment at the sensuous level first. Thus while conveying the beauty of imagery at the sensuous level, the awareness of the similarities between poetry and its sibling art forms can benefit us a lot. 3.3.2.1 The Image Transference of the Picturesque Beauty Ancient Chinese scholars often had a good command of associating poems with Chinese painting. Wang Wei is well known for his good command of poems and paintings. For example: 山中 王维 荆溪白石出,天寒红叶稀。 山路元无雨,空翠湿人衣。

In the Hills Wang Wei White pebbles hear a blue stream glide; Red leaves are strewn on cold hillside.
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

Along the path no rain is seen, My gown is moist with drizzling green. (Xu Yuanchong 2007: 14) The original poem produces a sharp contrast in color images. There are three explicit colors: “白 (white)”, “红 (red)”, “翠 (green)” and an implicit “blue” color of a stream which is compared with “white pebbles”, “red leaves” and “green”, the four colors of which form a harmonious whole. So when translating the poem, professor Xu gave due concern to the sharp color contrast and conveyed it to the target text. He not only renders the explicit colors, but also makes the implicit blue color of a stream explicit,which strengthens the contrast of colors. The original poem gives readers a beautiful picture where the objective images have a good association with the sharp color contrast. The translated version has been conveyed well into a picturesque beauty in readers’ mind. So one typical similarity between the poem and painting is the sharp contrast in color images. In translation, the translator needs to notice this feature and tries to achieve the same or similar effect in the target text. 3.3.2.2 The Image Transference of the Stereoscopic Beauty Poetry, like some other art forms such as sculpture and architecture which highlight the stereoscopic beauty, can also embody this kind of beauty through imagery. Take the following poem as an example: 独坐敬亭山 李白 众鸟高飞尽,孤云独去闲。 相看两不厌,唯有敬亭山。 Version 1: The Jingting Mountain Hocks of birds have flown high and away; A solitary drift of cloud, too, has gone, wandering on. And I sit alone with the Jingting Peak, towering beyond. We never grow tired of each other the mountain and I. -----Tr. by Obata (Lv, 1980: 28)

Version 2:

Sitting Alone Watching Mt. Jingting Until out of sight all of birds fly high,
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

A lonely cloud floats away in the sky. Watching each other we are never tired, The mount likes me and if by me admired. -----Tr. by Yang Jihe (Yang, 2004: 51)

Version 3:

Sitting Alone on Jingting Hill All birds have soared out of sight, A lone cloud is drifting leisurely by. Only Jingting Hill and me Would never tire of looking at other each. ---Tr. by Ren Zhiji & Yu Zheng (2006: 46)

Version 4:

As I Sit Alone at the Jingting Mountain Swarms of birds flit after in flight, Alonely cloud wanders idle and light. Between you and me I shall never tired of seeing, The Jingting Mountain in all its beauteous being. ---Tr. by Liu ( 2002: 75)

The original poem has successfully produced a stereoscopic space with the three images---birds flying high in the sky, lonely clouds floating far away and the Jingting Mountain standing before my eyes. The far distance between the birds, clouds and I sets off the poet’s loneliness and sadness and embodied the emotional communion with the scenery of the Jingting Mountain. Thus in translation, how to convey the stereoscopic beauty is of great significance for this poem. Among the four translated versions, the first three versions are better than the fourth one because readers can easily have the sense of the far distance of the birds and the cloud from the poet by conveying the two images faithfully in the translated versions, while in the fourth version, the birds and cloud seem not so far away from him. Therefore in the image transference of poetry translation with a foregrounding spatial beauty, the translators should convey the spatial images faithfully so that they can reproduce the stereoscopic beauty in the target text. Poetry is a comprehensive art form that embodies the aesthetic features of both plastic art and expressive art. Poetry, by analyzing its features of function, has a lot in common with painting. However, in some other cases where other features of poetry are
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

dominant such as dynamic and static features, it is not like painting, but a movie. Concerning its dynamic and static features, poetry is a very good form to integrate them successfully. Besides, poetry is like filmmaking in the way of reproduction of images between the long span in time and wide span in space, which is called Montage in filmmaking. To sum up, the similarity between poetry and motion picture lies in two aspects: one is the integration between dynamic and static images, and the other is the integration of space and time. Some poems often cover a long span in time and travels a wide span in space,which is viewed as an integrated beauty of time and space. The following will analyze the two separately. 3.3.2.3 The Image Transference of the Integrated Dynamic and Static Beauty Chinese poetry is rich both in dynamic and static images. A good combination of these two can help the poems to create a special kind of beauty. The two are always inseparable. On one hand, enjoying the beauty of tranquility is what poets, even most of human beings, aspire to. Naturally, a good command of describing the beauty of tranquility in poems is the ultimate effect that some poets want to achieve. Thus the poet usually focuses on interspersing some well-chosen dynamic images to activate the poem. The dynamic images are often compared to “the eye (s) of a line or poem”. In order to transfer the poems faithfully, the translator should select each word to match the original dynamic image and try to balance the relationship between dynamic images and static images. Let’s read the following the poem: 山居秋暝 王维 明月松间照,清泉石上流, 竹喧归浣女,莲动下渔舟。 Version l: The bright moon is shining through the pines, The clear stream flowing over the stones, Bamboos rustles,as washing maids return. Lotuses stir;a fishing boat descends. (Zhang&Wison, 1991: 34) Version 2: among pine trees bright moonbeams peer; Over crystal stones flows water clear. Bamboos whisper of washer-maids;
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

Lotus stirs when fishing boat wades. (XuYuanchong, 2007: 10) Version 3: Into the forest of pines the moon sheds her lights; Over the glistening rocks the spring water gl ides. The bamboo leaves make noise when washer-girls are home; The moving dories scattered the lotus blooms. -----Tr. by Wu Juntao (Xu, Lu&Wu, 1988: 71) Version 4: Bright shines the moon through the pines, Clear flows the spring over the stones. Noise from bamboo groves, back the washing girls, Lotus shifting, the down-going fishing boat. (Ren Zhiji &Yu Zheng: 2006: 18-19) Version 5: Tranquil moonlight glistening among pines, Crystal water bubbling over pebbles. The bamboo grove giggles --girls are back from washing; The lotuses rustle ---a sampan is about to emerge. (Zhu, 2004: 76)

The original poem creates a vivid picture by unifying the static images and dynamic images harmoniously. The first two lines depict a static image and the third and fourth lines form a contrast with them by providing some dynamic images. In terms of the five versions, for the verb “喧” in the third line, Zhang uses “rustle”; Xu transfers it into “whisper”; Wu renders it into “make noise”; Ren and Yu understand it as “noise” and Zhu translates it into “giggles”. Among the translated versions, by analyzing the background, the verb “giggle” is more vivid and closely connected with the image of the washer girls. The original poem depicts a picture that some washer girls are giggling and chatting as they are passing through a bamboo woods after they finish their washing. The bamboo rustles due to the girls’ giggling. However, in Zhu’s version, it is translated into “the bamboo grove giggles”. In poems we can accept this kind of fallacy and even consider it more ingenious than the original. As to another dynamic image “莲动”, “动” has been rendered into “stir, scatter, shifting, rustle”. Among the four words, “stir, scatter and shifting” only show the movement of the lotus, while the onomatopoeic verb
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

“rustle” endows not only the movement of lotus, but also the sound the lotus produces. So it is the better choice. Moreover, it is more reasonable and vivid to translate “下渔 舟” into “a sampan is about to emerge” than the other versions. “Emerge” originally means “come out of a dark, enclosed or hidden place” (Oxford Advanced Lerner’s English-Chinese Dictionary, 555). Emerge is equal to “浮出”, which is, on surface, contradictory to the original poem “下”, but in fact “emerge” depicts a very vivid picture that the boat, enclosed in the lotuses, is coming out. Here “下” does not literally mean “descends” or “down-going”. Thus in the rendition of dynamic images, the fifth version did the best among five. What’s more, Mr. Zhu’s version embodies clearly the contrast between the stillness and the dynamic images. Look at the translation of “明月” in the five versions, we can find the first four translator have rendered it into “bright

moon” or “moon”, while Mr. Zhu uses “tranquil moonlight” to convey the calmness and quietness of the setting with the bright moon in the sky. Therefore in view of the translation of dynamic images and the conveyance of contrast between static and dynamic images, Zhu’s version outshines the others. 3.3.2.4 The Image Transference of Montage Montage is a special technique employed in modern filmmaking. It refers to the choosing, cutting and combining together of separate photographic materials for making a connected and complete film. Montage is borrowed and employed by Chinese poets in poetry composition and has achieved a great success in rendering imagery. The most conspicuous benefit brought by such kind of technique is that the poem can cover a long span in time and wide span in space. For example: 江南春绝句 千里莺啼绿映红,水村山郭酒旗风。 南朝四百八十寺,多少楼台烟雨中。

Version 1:

Spring in the Yangtze Delta

Orioles can be heard singing amid the red and green for a thousand li, And wineshop streamers flutter in lakeside villages and hillside towns. Of the 480 temples built by the Southern Dynasties, Many towers and terraces still remain erect in the misty rain.

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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

(Chinese Literature Press,1998:196)

Version 2:

Spring South of the River In this land a thousand li across, orioles warble among radiant tints of red and green; In waterside villages and by hillside city walls, tavern signs flutter in breeze. Of the four hundred and eighty temples built in the Southern Dynasties, Many towers and terraces are now there, shrouded in mist and rain. ---Tr. by Wen Shu, Wang Jinxi, Deng Yanchang(Yang, 2004: 114)

First, the poet depicts the orioles and wine-shop a thousand li away. It is too far away to see clearly what it is. Only the sharp contrasting colors are in the sight. Then, it becomes closer. We can easily distinguish that the green color is the color of lakeside villages and hillside towns while the sharp red color is that of the tavern signs in order to attract guests around. So the scenery of the second couplet is closer than the first one. In the third couplet, the poet chooses other images which are different from the first two: the 480 temples built by the Southern Dynasties, and “many towers and terraces” which remain erect in the misty rain. The poet conveys his sentiments on the vicissitudes of dynasties by employing the image of misty rain which shows the desolation of the previous glory. Comparing the two versions, we can see that version 1 can express the poet’s sentiment better by using the phrase “still remain erect”, while the same line in the second version can hardly enable the readers to sense the poet’s sentiment. The temporal beauty in version 1 is displayed in the third and fourth lines. The sight of the 480 temples built in the Southern Dynasties arouses the sentiment of the poet for the vicissitude of the dynasties. The second couplet retains the syntactic structure of the original so the whole line gives us a similar impression of filmmaking as the original does.

3.3.3 The Affective Beauty and Its Transference
Readers achieve enjoyment just from the imagery in poetry because imagery conveys the poet’s feelings and readers are imbued with poet’s emotions. The basic
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

principle is to translate emotion with emotion. Empathy is an important method to achieve that purpose. Empathy refers to a method or technique in the appreciation of a work of art involving the imaginative re-creation of a mood, feeling, or emotional state suggested by the work of art. The aim is to achieve the sympathetic empathy with the poet’s aesthetic feelings. Whether the method of empathy has been explored or not in the process of translation is directly connected with the overall quality of the translation. Here is an example of Li Qingzhao’s Slow, Slow Tune. 声声慢 李清照 寻寻觅觅,冷冷清清,凄凄惨惨戚戚。 Version 1: So dim, so dark, so dull, so damp, so dank, so dead. ---Tr. by Lin Yutang (Cong Zihang, 2007: 30)

Version 2:

I’ve a sense of something missing I must seek, Everything about me looks dismal and bleak. Nothing that gives me pleasure, I can find, Even the weather has proved most unkind. ----Xu Zhongjie (Cong Zihang, 2007: 30)

Version 3:

I look for what I miss; I know not what it is. I feel so sad, so drear, So lonely, without cheer. (Xu Yuanchong, 2007: 403)

Version 4:

I seek but seek in vain, I search and search again. I feel so sad, so drear, So lonely, without cheer. ----Tr. by Xu Yuanchong (Cong Zihang, 2007: 30)

Version 5:

Restless and lost, Cold and lonely, Wretched, miserable and anxious.
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

(Ren Zhiji & Yu Zheng, 2007: 237)

Version 6:

Seek, seek; search, search; Cold, cold; bare, bare; Grief, grief; cruel, cruel grief. (Cong Zihang, 2007: 30)

This famous lyric depicts the loneliness of the poetess after the death of her husband. “寻寻觅觅”shows that the poetess’ life becomes disordered after she loses her husband. She is living in her beautiful memories which are a sharp contrast with the miserable situation where she is living now, so she keeps seeking and attempts to get back all she has missed. “冷冷清清” and “凄凄惨惨戚戚”convey her loneliness and grief. In this Ci poem, the poet’s empathy is conveyed through the repetition of the words. The use of repetition of words strengthens the sad, grief and hopeless setting. In this Ci poem, some important images like “drink”, “wild geese”, and “yellow flowers” embody the poetess’ empathy fully. The loss of her husband makes her sad, dread, and lonely, without cheer. She feels everything is cold which she can not endure and she knows nothing about what can keep her fit. She chooses to have drinks, but unfortunately, it doesn’t help her a little. As for her old acquaintance, the wild geese are passing, leaving her alone. The yellow flowers fade and fall in showers so that the poetess feels very much sympathetic with them. The last cry “O what can I do with a grief beyond belief?” conveys the poetess’ hopelessness and sadness. Version 1: Lin Yutang is rendering the original beauty and sound beauty, but he loses image transference. Even we can not find “寻寻觅觅” in the translated version. Version 2: Xu Zhongjie focuses on the conveyance of the image in the original version. Compared to version 2, version 3 and 4 are better in rendering the images and they are much more concise. Version 4 is better than version 3 because the form of version 4 “I seek but seek in vain, I search and search again” is similar to the original Ci poem and it is more useful to convey the poetess’ empathy. From this example we can see that empathy is of vital importance to the translator in the conveyance of emotion, but there should be a degree to the translator’s empathy, i.e.Translator should follow the poet’s clue of feelings rather than hide the poet’s emotion in translator’s feelings. If the poet’s feelings are overt, the translator can make

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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

it explicit. If the poet’s feelings are covert,the translator should make the expression of emotion implicit. Some other scholars like Si Kongtu (837-908), Liu Xie also made remarks on the implicit beauty of poems. In translation, the translators should manage to retain the implicit beauty of the original and at the same time take the acceptability of the TL readers into account. Another example is: 浪淘沙 李煜 独自莫凭栏,无限江山。 别时容易见时难。 流水落花春去也, 天上人间。 Version 1: Flowing waters,falling petals,all reach their home, Sky is above,but man has his place. —Tr. by Robert Kotewall&Norman L Smith Version 2: Spring has gone with the fallen petals And the waters running What a difference Between a prisoner and a king! ------Tr. by Huang Xinqu Version 3: Flowing waters and falling flowers, Gone with the spring. Heaven and earth. ----Tr. by Ren Zhiji & Yu Zheng(2007: 176) Version 4: With flowers fallen on the waves Spring’s gone away, So has the paradise of yesterday. ---Tr. by Xu Yuanchong (Zhang,1994:25-26) The poet makes a contrast between his tow kinds of life before and after he became a prisoner: heaven and earth. He also expresses his sorrow and regret through the image in his poem. The last line of the poem is the theme of the whole poem, and in particular,

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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

the two images “天上” (1iterally “the heaven”) and “人间” (1iterally “human world”) highlight the sharp contrast but it is implicit in expression without mentioning the poets’ present life as a prisoner. In translation, the translator should not only convey the theme, but also try to retain the beauty of implicitness of the original. Version 1 is translated literally. The translator doesn’t mention the implicitness and obeys the form of the original. Although he tries to retain the implicitness of the original, the line may seem too obscure to the target readers and lose the beauty of imagery. So when we want to retain the implicitness we should also pay attention to the intelligibility of the version. Version 2 is opposite. The translator focuses on the explicitness by directly translating the line into “between a prisoner and a king”. If so, target readers can not find any beauty of implicitness and the flavor of the original. Version 3 renders “天上人间” into “Heaven and earth”. It is better than the above two because it retains the implicitness of the original. Version 4 employs the word “paradise” to render “天上”. “Paradise of yesterday” is a contrast with “life of today”. According to the implicitness of contrast, it was yesterday that he lived life like a paradise, but now the life of today must be poor and miserable. “Paradise of yesterday” is more concise than the others. The two words share similar associative meaning, so the TL text keeps the beauty of implicitness like the original. It is better than the other three versions. Culture has exerted great influence upon the conveyance of imagery. We need to know the features of different cultures and the relationship between language and culture. As to poetry translation, image transference is of great significance. Some useful strategies in image transference at mental level, semantic level, and aesthetic level have been put forward to diminish the cultural conflict. As we know, the aesthetic judgment of the readers is the reflection of the culture in which they live. Chinese and English people may have different aesthetic criteria in judging a poem, but we still have the need to spread the Chinese culture to the outside world.

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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

Chapter Four Conclusion
4.1 Major Findings and Implications
In scientific study, it is a reasonable practice that researchers create a new discipline based on the achievement of their study on other relative disciplines. Cultural linguistics is created in the same way. Palmer studied linguistic anthropology and cognitive linguistics, and he found they have connections, so he combined them and thus formed a new approach to study language--- cultural linguistics. Chinese poetry is well-known for its beautiful imagery and concise language, considered to be one of Chinese treasures, even of world treasures. It embodies the glorious history of China and the flourishing development of poetry in literature. Chinese poetry has attracted worldwide attention in the past centuries. With the increasing growth of translated versions, more readers at home and abroad get to realize and enjoy the beauty of Chinese poetry in foreign language, especially in English. However, according to Robert Frost’s opinion: poetry is what gets lost in translation (Bassnet & Lefevere, 2001: 57), poetry can not be translated because the beauty of poems will disappear in the translated versions. But the successful works of those researchers have proved that the beauty of poems can be conveyed through translation. Imagery --the key part of Chinese poetry--- is what readers aspire to appreciate and researchers to study. Not only Chinese scholars but also western researchers have given great contributions to the study of poetry imagery. Based on the theory of Palmer’s cultural linguistics, taking some Chinese poetry for examples, this dissertation explores the principles and methods for image transference in poetry translation, which may be helpful for future translators.

4.2 Limitations and Suggestions for Further Research
Concerning the dissertation, the author supposes that most of the images in poetry are translatable, but it is not exact. There are still some untranslatable parts which result from the insurmountable cultural barriers. It will be very difficult for TL readers to comprehend and appreciate the SL text if the images are untranslatable. The translators may adopt some practical approaches to overcome cultural barriers in poetry translation. In terms of the principles and strategies for the image transference, this dissertation mainly discusses them at two different levels---at semantic level and at aesthetic level.
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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

At semantic level, translators should follow the semantic equivalence principle and adopt such translation strategies as keeping, replacing and removing the images. At the aesthetic level, translators should try to follow the aesthetic equivalence principle. Poetry translation is not merely for literature exchanges, but for intercultural communications, making other nations accept our literature and culture by outputting more translation works. Generally speaking, image transference of poetry translation has drawn more attention at home and abroad. However, it is impossible for the English readers to appreciate the images of Chinese poetry if we have no relative cultural information. So what matters to a successful image transference of poetry translation is to make clear the relationship between the cultural information and the relative images, which is useful to translators to render the images and also helpful TL readers to appreciate English translated versions of Chinese poetry.

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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

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A Study on Image Transference of Poetry Translation from Perspective of Palmer’s Cultural Linguistics---- Taking the English Translations of Some Classical Chinese Poetry for Examples

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